Meaning of the word “Computer.”
The computer is derived from the Latin word “computer,” which means “to calculate,” “to count,” “to sum up,” or “to think together.” So, more precisely, the word computer means a “device that performs computation.”
Some interesting facts about computers & their Operating Systems
The first digital computers were developed between 1940 to 1945.
Konrad Zuse, In 1941 developed “Z3”, the first modern computing machine.
Konrad Zuse is regarded as “the inventor of computers.”
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator & Computer) was the first US-built electronic computer.
John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert developed ENIAC.
The world’s first stored-program computer was “Manchester Baby” developed in 1948.
The “Manchester Baby” was a small-scale experimental computer developed at Victoria University of Manchester.
In the 1st generation of computers, Computers were built with vacuum tubes.
In 1957, FORTRAN (Formula Translator) was introduced.
Computers were built with Transistors in the 2nd generation of computers.
In the 3rd generation of computers, Transistors were replaced with Integrated Circuits.
In the 4th generation of computers, Microprocessors were used to built Computers.
In 1981, IBM PC with Intel processors and MS-Dos was introduced.
In 1984, Macintosh Computers were introduced.
In 1985, Microsoft Windows GUI was introduced.
In 1989, Intel 486 computers were introduced.
In 1990, Windows 3.0 Operating System for PCs was launched.
In 1991, the World Wide Web was introduced to the general public.
In 1991, Linux operating was developed.
In 1993, Intel’s Pentium was introduced.
In 1995, Windows 95 operating system was made released.
In June 1996 Windows 4.0 operating system was released.
On February 17, 2000, Windows 2000 was released.
Windows XP was released on 25th October 2001.
On November 30th, 2006, Windows Vista was released.
On July 22nd, 2009, Windows 7 was introduced.
Windows 8, the successor of Windows 7, was released on October 28th, 2012.
At their coronary heart, they positioned the qubits into a nation of “superposition” Where, like Schrödinger’s famous cat, their fee isn’t one nor zero, but both at the identical time. To “pass away” calculation, the quantum country is ended so that the qubits take a standard 1 or zero value. Putting the quantum states and superposition up effectively should mean a quantum laptop will attain the same solution as a regular one.
The difference is that after the trouble has been set up, a quantum PC can reach its final answer nearly instantaneously because the qubits will “fall apart” to the correct answer, as opposed to having to work via a sequence of calculations like a regular virtual laptop.
In concept that permits them to perform particular types of calculations tonnes faster than a standard PC. Thus far, although they’re hindered with the aid of additional practical worries like the accuracy difficulty, which has been tackled by way of the College of New South Wales crew.
“For quantum computing to turn out to be a fact, we need to operate the bits with subtle error fees,” stated Scientia Professor Andrew Dzurak. Error correction can handiest accomplish that a lot, and without proper hardware, getting tens of millions of calculations barely off soon provides up.
“Even though strategies to accurate mistakes do exist, their effectiveness is simplest assured if the errors occur less than 1% of the time,” Dzurak persisted. “Our experiments are some the first in the stable country, and the primary ever in silicon, to meet this requirement. This is the reality.”
The steady development of quantum computing is a systematic Marvel. Some of the troubles the era may be used to address, including puzzling out how proteins fold, will convey high-quality results. But different aspects of it could be unfavorable if the arena is not organized.
Quantum computer systems need to, in theory, be capable of breaking the public key encryption, which protects nearly all non-public conversations online. Public key systems use two “keys” – one public and one non-public – derived from pairs of top numbers. The power of the encryption is based on the truth that it’s far harder to work out the top elements of such a range (like 323) than it’s far to generate the field via multiplying the primes collectively (17×19).
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- The trouble is that looking to implement any trade online makes herding cats look trivial. And trying to agree on who, precisely, has to hold the keys to the internet might be borderline, not possible. “The web does not exist as one monolithic society with one boss that announces ‘March,’ and everyone does,” says Snow. But soon sufficient, the pressure could be on.Australian researchers have demonstrated that a quantum PC code model can be written on a silicon microchip with the highest stage of accuracy ever recorded.
A quantum PC uses atoms in preference to transistors as its processing unit, permitting it to conduct a couple of complicated calculations right away and at an excessive pace. Within the race to construct the first purposeful quantum computer, scientists worldwide were trying to write quantum code in several substances together with cesium, aluminum, niobium-titanium nitride, and diamond.
However, researchers at the University of NSW have long been basing their studies around silicon. Silicon is the building block of all cutting-edge electronic devices, which might make the quantum code in a silicon microchip less complicated, other cost-powerful, and notably scalable.
For the first time, they managed to entangle a couple of quantum bits – units of quantum information referred to as qubits – in silicon. Qubits permit computer systems to access code vastly richer than the virtual codes utilized in common computer systems, which give quantum computers their superior electricity.
By way of “entangling” the two qubits, in this case, an electron and the nucleus of a single phosphorus atom, the researchers confirmed that the debris remained connected even when separated so that movements achieved on one nonetheless affected the alternative.
“Qubits are bodily gadgets which have ordinary states, so believe a spin which can point north or south, or a circuit Wherein cutting-edge can flow clockwise and counterclockwise, all binary opportunities,” Professor Andrea Morello, who led the studies, stated.
“But if you entangle the two of them collectively, you get a superposition of the different mixtures of binary choice, so a spin can now factor each north and south, and the contemporary can glide clockwise and counterclockwise. binary things are taking place at the equal time.”
This entanglement intended a quantum computing language or code massively richer than traditional virtual codes utilized in regular computer systems might be accessed, with these unique codes giving quantum computer systems their superior power, he said.
“You may think of it as having a further vocabulary,” Morello, software manager at the Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, stated.
“While you communicate, you have got 26 letters and a few hundred thousand words available to you. In a classical computer, the vocabulary is a mixture of zeros and ones that represent its code.
“In a quantum laptop, imagine that you have the equal zeros and ones, but because entanglement of quantum bits can help you combine them in a way not possible on regular computer systems, it’d be the equivalent of abruptly have a billion new words to be had to you the use of those identical 26 letters.
“That is why quantum computing is so useful.”
To mathematically show the entanglement of the two particles had taken place, the locating had to beyond the Bells Test, a rigorous and unforgiving Check that detects even the most minor imperfection.
The research handed the Check with the highest rating ever recorded in an experiment. The findings have been posted In the global magazine, Nature Nanotechnology, on Tuesday.
Professor Andrew Dzurak, a silicon nanofabrication expert, said it validated that silicon became an “outstanding” platform for quantum computing.
“We suspected that for a while, however, this surely demonstrates it, and it also indicates that those unmarried-atom quantum bits can be very, very promising,” he stated.
“Inside the region of silicon-primarily based quantum computing, Australia is in reality In the lead, and is now a good two years ahead of our nearest competition In the field.”
Morello stated presently there had been a reasonably constrained information of what a purposeful quantum PC may want to do because there was no prototype.
“It’s tough to invent a new algorithm without the computer to try it on,” he stated.
But quantum computing’s best ability was perhaps Inside the field of medication, he said.
“Wouldn’t you need a PC Wherein you can inform if you had cancer and ask it what molecule to inject to kill it?” Morello said.
“The reason You couldn’t do that now’s due to the fact even in case you had full information of cancer cellular killing you, no calculation can answer that query, as it’s miles a quantum hassle. This is In which quantum computing might have the most substantial effect.”